Work to demonstrate the application of information theory to a wide variety of molecular systems: DNA replication [22, 33, 54, 55], transcription factors [9, 42, 36, 59, 72, 73, 76], RNA polymerases [9, 12, 65, 68, 71], splice junctions , (also mutations in splice junctions causing human disease [27, 37, 38, 49], including the cancer xeroderma pigmentosum [41, 51, 57, 62, 74]), RNA folding , ribosome binding sites [9, 10, 14, 18, 24, 53], protein structure  and evolution and phylogeny [28, 40, 50, 65, 68].
Continuation of work on T7 described below and creation of a theory of molecular machines, based on Shannon’s channel capacity formula [15, 16]. Invention of the now widely used sequence logos,  individual information  and sequence walkers .
Conclusion of the T7 promoter experiment .
Randomized synthetic DNA genetic engineering experiment to determine whether the excess information at bacteriophage T7 promoters is used by the polymerase . The experiment was successful, and showed that the T7 polymerase does not use the excess sequence conservation. This supports the hypothesis that a second protein binds.
Served on the GenBank Advisory Committee as a graduate student and postdoc.
Designed and wrote a computer language called Delila for manipulating DNA sequences [2, 6], which we used to investigate the statistics of ribosome binding sites [1, 3]. We used this system to train a perceptron to identify ribosome binding sites, and so we were the first group to apply neural networks to the problem of finding nucleic acid binding sites . I designed and built plasmids for studying the quantitative relationships between sequence and function of ribosome binding sites [7, 10, 24]. My thesis was on the information content of nucleic-acid binding sites . It describes the excess information (excess sequence conservation) found at bacteriophage T7 promoters. This purely mathematical calculation led me to predict the existence of a second binding protein.
Graded tests and helped students to understand the material.
Taught two lab sections and graded tests.
Worked at the Architecture Machine in the Department of Architecture on a computer system to recognize visual scenes by parallel processing. I did this on a serial processor since no parallel processors were available at that time. This work was funded for the summer of 1977 by the MIT Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program.
I designed and wrote programs to display meteorological data gathered in real time on a NOAA airplane flying through storm systems such as hurricanes.
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