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Shannon, C. E. (1948) A mathematical theory of communication. Bell System Tech. J., 27, 379-423, 623-656 http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/ms/what/shannonday/paper.html.

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Gappmair, W. (April, 1999) Claude E. Shannon: The 50th anniversary of information theory. IEEE Communications Magazine, 37(4), 102-105.

Schneider, T. D., Stormo, G. D., Gold, L., and Ehrenfeucht, A. (1986) Information content of binding sites on nucleotide sequences. J. Mol. Biol., 188, 415-431 http://www.lecb.ncifcrf.gov//paper/schneider1986/.

Schneider, T. D. and Stephens, R. M. (1990) Sequence logos: A new way to display consensus sequences. Nucleic Acids Res., 18, 6097-6100 http://www.lecb.ncifcrf.gov//paper/logopaper/.

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Schneider, T. D. (1994) Sequence logos, machine/channel capacity, Maxwell's demon, and molecular computers: a review of the theory of molecular machines. Nanotechnology, 5, 1-18 http://www.lecb.ncifcrf.gov//paper/nano2/.

Stormo, G. D., Schneider, T. D., Gold, L., and Ehrenfeucht, A. (1982) Use of the `Perceptron' algorithm to distinguish translational initiation sites in E. coli. Nucleic Acids Res., 10, 2997-3011.

Schneider, T. D. (1991) Theory of molecular machines. I. Channel capacity of molecular machines. J. Theor. Biol., 148, 83-123 http://www.lecb.ncifcrf.gov//paper/ccmm/.

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Schneider, T. D. (1991) Theory of molecular machines. II. Energy dissipation from molecular machines. J. Theor. Biol., 148, 125-137 http://www.lecb.ncifcrf.gov//paper/edmm/.

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Schneider, T. D. and Stormo, G. D. (1989) Excess information at bacteriophage T7 genomic promoters detected by a random cloning technique. Nucleic Acids Res., 17, 659-674.

Herman, N. D. and Schneider, T. D. (1992) High information conservation implies that at least three proteins bind independently to F plasmid incD repeats. J. Bacteriol., 174, 3558-3560.

Stormo, G. D. (1998) Information Content and Free Energy in DNA-Protein Interactions. J. Theor. Biol., 195, 135-137.

Schneider, T. D. (1999) Measuring molecular information. J. Theor. Biol., 201, 87-92 http://www.lecb.ncifcrf.gov//paper/ridebate/.

Spetner, L. M. (1998) NOT BY CHANCE! Shattering the Modern Theory of Evolution, Judaica Press, New York.

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Spetner, L. M. (1964) Natural selection: an information-transmission mechanism for evolution. J. Theor. Biol., 7, 412-429.

Tom Schneider

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